“ENDE”, MANDAILING FOLK SONGS
by Edi Nasution
As one of the ethnic groups in North Sumatra, society has various shades Mandailing folk songs and they call it "ende". A mother for example, singing as he cradled his son in order to fall asleep is called "ende bue-bue". Similarly, when a father for example expressing compassion through singing to his son who left for dead by her mother called "ende-uro uro".
"Ende mamuro" can be present in the loom when a farmer dispel sparrows who eat rice in the fields. There is also a vendor or seller "ngiro" (sap water) as "ari poken" (day of week) shouted: "... ngiro na ... ngiro na ... !!! patalak ... patalak ... so u patungkap ... " to include "near song" (Jan Harold Brunvand, 1968), is more concerned with the singing of "words" instead of the song, which is better known as "peddler's cries". Moreover, in some singing Mandailing present together dance "tortor custom", ie "jeir" that accompanied the ensemble music "Gondang Boru".
This time we try to explain a little about the two people singing Mandailaing. First, "ungut-ungut" contained in "Mandailaing Julu", and secondly, "sitogol" from "Mandailaing Godang". Which "ungut-ungut" usually can be present in various places and occasions. While "sitogol" usually sung person (youth) from above "tor" (small hills) are often interspersed with the sound of a musical instrument "olonglio" ("uyup-uyup durame" - free reed) and the occasional "dosik" (whistling) that can be heard and to the attention of the idol girl who was working in the fields are located in the valley hills.
"Sitogol" from "Mandailaing Godang" has a rhythmic and melodic style that is much different from the "Onang-Onang" from Angkola, and "Sitogol" never present in the context of the traditional wedding ceremony for example, while "Onang-Onang" of Angkola it is "traditional singing "brought together dance "tortor” indigenous to the accompaniment of a musical ensemble "Gondang Dua". Although there are "Onang-Onang" sung not in the context of traditional ceremonies, but the cultivation of musical styles are not much different - just text or poem are calm - in the context of traditional ceremonies. So it is clear that "ende Sitogol" from "Mandailaing Godang" is not the same as "Onang-Onang" from Angkola.
In this case, Angkola is one ethnic group nearest neighbor Mandailaing ethnic groups in South Tapanuli. It may be said that between the two ethnic groups is more prevalent cultural similarities than differences. While South Tapanuli itself is a term for a government administrative region now that the status of "district" which is a Dutch colonial heritage. Therefore, there will never be "Gondang Tapanuli Selatan” (art and culture of South Tapanuli).
Both "ungut-ungut" or "sitogol" has text or poetic Mandailaing and generally contains jeremiads (expression of feelings) about love or even destitution. Therefore they are more concerned than song lyrics. Both the singing initially did not have the number of rows (the temple) which remains as sung spontaneously. There are times when 4 lines (structured poem), line 5, 6 lines and so on, but there is a tendency in the subsequent development of "structured rhyme". For "ungut-ungut" that "rhyming ab-ab", where the first line and the second is "sampiran", being the third and fourth line is "content". The text "sitogol" structured poem (or not) as well as a whole tend to contents, without any “sampiran” its.
In the text singing "ungut-ungut" and "sitogol" There are a lot of word 'mada', 'ile', ‘baya, 'da' and others that do not connote (meaningless syllables), the same position with the word 'lah', 'kah','kah’ or 'yang' in Indonesian. Words or syllables are used to support the "artistic effect" and sometimes to adjust the amount of syllables in each "range of melody" (phrase). Things like this was first formulated by cultural Drs. Z. Pangaduan Lubis in his paper: "Penelitian Tekstual Dalam Jeir: Suatu Pengamatan Awal“. Talk presented at the III Ethnomusicology 1987 at the Faculty of Letters USU Medan.
When considered in the composition or the number of syllables sung melody for each range, it does not have the same amount. This situation shows that the number of syllables for each range of the melody is not binding by default. It can form sentences long or short in any stretch of the melody. Adjustment long or short sentence in each range melody when singing “ende sitogol” or “ungut-ungut” depending on the "expertise" of “si parende” (singer) itself.
ASPECTS OF MUSICAL
'Ungut-ungut"solo sung by a man with a moderate tempo, melodic style that is static (heightened speech), without meter (heterometris) and usually as an accompaniment is a wind instrument “distilled" or "salung". While “sitogol” also sung solo by men with moderate tempo, sometimes interspersed strains “olonglio” musical instruments and the occasional "dosik" (whistling). in addition, "sitogol" has kantur melodic ascending (up) and also without meters (heterometris). the fundamental difference, where "ungut-ungut" sung softly.
While “ende sitogol" shouted a bit stronger as sung from the top of the hill in order to be heard idol girl who was working in the fields, in the valley, the hills where he sang "sitogol". Both "ungut- ungut” or "sitogol" tend to be "strophic" because they always repeat the formula (form) the same melody but with a new song text. RizaIdi Siagian MA (Chairman of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Faculty of Letters USU) suggests that music (vocal) as this is called "Logogenic". This means that more emphasis clicking the text songs to express ideas rather than the satisfaction of musical aspect.
"Ungut-ungut" and "sitogol" is a folk song of Mandailaing (called "ende" only by them) that consists of words and songs, traditional form because there is and exists in Mandailaing society since the beginning until now. Also has many variants and circulated orally in society Mandailaing.
Furthermore, it can be argued that the two Mandailing folk songs can be categorized into lyrical folk songs that are real (James Danandjaya 1984; 14153). Because the lyrics express feelings without telling a story that is continued, and the dominant express feelings of sadness, despair at the loss of something, or love, or even destitution depicting human desires are never reached.(*)
Posted in Daily WASPADA Medan, 1991.